Included in the assembly kit, you will find a reel of aluminium-wound music string. The core of the string is multi-filament carbon and it contains capillary spaces that can contain water molecules. You will need a galvanized bucket or similar in which you can boil water, so that the completely assembled Ankh may be immersed and thus water vapour can be drawn through the interior of the music string, by cooling.

There is enough string in the kit to wind the two coils on the bobbin piston formers, leaving enough spare to thread through the central cylinder, to act as an axle for the "jack" rotor to spin upon. The vibrating ("speaking"), length of the string, in operation, is subject to extremes of heat, mechanical shock & heat differentials at any time of operation. Don't be an Icarus!


If you intend to burn mercury, for extreme quantum variation and displacement, you should have the "Off Switch" to hand. This is available in a separate package and after the string runs out, can be used to chop down trees and for example, skin and butcher an animal. Get to know and recognize the various small parts and how they all fit together.

So, how does it work? Bear in mind; this comes from the mind set of : -

a prolific guitar builder...



Before we begin, let's consider the toy jack, as shown here, left. I have never met anyone who knew why this shaped toy should have ever been designed; it just seems so very specific - but for what purpose was it intended??

(What follows is a description of a hand-held sub-atomic particle accelerator, designed to destroy matter one photon at a time. Don't worry about it, it will come to you). This was the small print...

What is this jack thing? There is no reference anywhere on the internet for its true purpose; no explanation is ever given for something that is plainly such a sophisticated engineering project.

It works as spinning top... (video)

~ so how come: -

There are no surviving examples of such an artifact from antiquity, that have a hole bored with precision tools, through the tapered "spindle" part? Surely (it seems to me), this thing is either (1), a means for anchoring some sort of soft material with a firm lug, by enclosing or immersing the ball-ends within the mass of that material (unlikely), or (2), a spinning rotor for a mechanism of some kind.

Because I was curious, I had a very skilled engineer bore one out for me to see how well it would run on a music string, when using that string as a spindle.


Science fiction... or is it?


- also, see Leonardo Da Vinci section...

Since 1999, I have wondered, could chained and synchronized multiple Sonoluminescence bubble collapse events be generated within a liquid-filled music string? So I designed a jig to test the hypothesis, which, if correct, might mean that useful energy, in the form of light and heat, could be output from the Sonoluminescence phenomenon (S.L.), for the first time (in this current phase of civilization).

- This hypothesis might seem a little bit crazy but...

Since initially finding that the Ankh format / pattern seems to answer all of the design criteria problems, I have worked through this idea continually, (for 14 years in its current form, which is as far as I can take it on paper or computer screen) and I can't find a flaw with the logic of any of it. It was originally designed as a particle accellerator back in 1980 and developed, machine part by machine part, well into 1984. The shapes of the parts have not been altered since concept but the means of operation changed fundamentally with the benefit of better information.

You are more or less guaranteed to be confused by what follows but the concepts are simple and indisputable in premise.

In short, here are my working drawings for a hypothetical hand-held sub-atomic particle accelerator that can anihilate matter, in a controlled way, one photon at a time thus providing the inevitably associated release of energy. If you make one, have fun turning it off, folks! That's all...

Skip all this other shit and go to how to assemble the machine...

As the development of carbon nano-tubes progresses, it seems probable that at some point in the not so distant future, it might well be possible that they may be made in sufficiently great lengths to constitute the multifilament core of a wire-wound music string. In that case, since the water molecule is still easily small enough to fit inside the hollow nano-tubes in great numbers, these fibres might be a better choice for the design I have outlined herein. So, for carbon fibres (as specified in these pages), perhaps read carbon nano-tubes. It's just an idea. But first...

O.K. Folks; I have had it with attempting to present the scientific community with this as a serious scientific hypothesis. As yet another respected scientist infers that I am a delusional crank, I grow terminally weary of all the patronising and misguided assumptions; but maybe before judging for yourself, you might want to take a peek at my guitars and my painting.

From now on, this is science fiction (if you like, pure); it makes a good story, at least. In 1997, William Ryan and Walter Pitman published evidence that a massive flooding of the Black Sea occurred about 5600 BC through the Bosporus. It seems to be reasonable and very probably correct, from all of the evidence (which has been verified by numerous archaeological investigations since their first revelation).

Similarly, in a manner which is similarly frequently described as non-science, I have started with the assumption that there was some real object in history that gave rise to the origin and common use of the Ancient Egyptian Ankh symbol. Back in 1980, I started to attempt to work out what this could possibly have been, using cold logic. If a tool existed in those days that could accurately (and apparently effortlessly) cut and fly huge blocks of stone through the air, then the reason it no longer survived to this day would have to be that some part of it (probably the fuel), ran out and the "aliens" (or other-dimensional beings), who brought it with them did not bring the huge technological manufacturing system that would enable them to continue to produce the required components.

The "fuel" ran out and the second generation would dismiss their parents ramblings about their having been able to fly and cut the gigantic and hugely massive stone blocks that they obviously did with such apparent ease; thus the truth would be consigned to myth - but the "magic" symbol (the Ankh) would continue to command reverence, hence the Ankh symbol.

Where to begin? Ever since I was a small child, it has perplexed me that the toy "jack" should be the shape that it is. Why would anybody design such a complex "toy", something that is obviously quite difficult to manufacture? Here is a six-frame animation (done in hand drawn Disney-style back in 2001) showing the object in question, used as a rotor with a central hollow bore, mounted to freely spin upon a tensioned music string (here used as an axle): -

In the science fiction scenario which I propose, many thousands of these objects would be held as stock items for spares, along with reels of the string specified herein. Many ancient legends and myths include string as an important part of the plot. For example, Theseus's escape facilitated by Ariadne from the Minotaur's maze and also the Gordian knot. There are many other examples. It seems that what was probably some special kind of string was a powerful thing to possess.

There are many are other strange shapes that seem to persist throughout history eventually to become revered icons. When I visited Knossos on Crete back in 1980, I was struck by the apparent "weirdness" of some of the structural details. What, for example, was the origin for the design of the "Bull's horns" sculpture (illustrated below)?

Like with the toy jack, this irritated me. The shaping is so very sophisticated. This is only a rough pencil sketch but (being a trained lettering artist and typographer), it became obvious to me, as I was first drawing it, back in 1982/3, that whoever designed this in 3d had a good understanding of what a sine wave is, quite precisely.

The stone sculpture from 1,400 B.C. at the Palace of Knossos does not bear the indented side groove that my drawing (and invented machine part), has. This makes me think that there was maybe a conspiracy, born of paranoia, to keep "graven images" out of public sight. Thou shalt not copy this, etc.,

Plus, there was most probably some weird religion somwhere, that forbade the making of images that looked anything like female human genitalia.

But string...

Why do I think that string is a very good candidate for an efficient machine part?

1. Demonstrably, a tensioned string becomes a musical device but it is potentially much more than that. A tensioned music string is arguably the most efficient machine it is possible to fabricate in terms of simplicity and sensitivity.

2. Whether it is constructed as a monofilament or as a wound core, it has only one moving part: - just the whole speaking length.

3. Anywhere in the known universe, no tensioned music string, unless it is restrained by damping, can ever be motionless, i.e., without being in a vibrating state, since there are always stimulating forces present which will provoke movement within the speaking length.

4. Irrespective of its construction materials, a solid music string has a degree of inherent stiffness. This means that at its points of support at either end, the string cannot be infinitely flexible. Through my hands-on experience as a professional music string technician, I discovered early on (40 years ago), that good tone (harmonic richness) is highly dependent upon string supports with curved surfaces, which enable the string to vary in length as it vibrates. This is a microscopically small effect but extremely important (and highly noticeable to the observer of the audio output).

5. The time that a string spends in a straight condition, rather than as a constantly changing curve (as it is during vibration), is effectively zero. This is simply because whenever a vibrating music string attains its position of least tension (straight), it is moving. There is only a momentary point in time (of zero duration) when that condition exists.

6. The curved point of support argument seems not to apply to bowed instruments (e.g., the violin family), as the bridge design, incorporating a virtual (sharp) point of support, is used. In their case, these instruments commonly employ soft sleeves to cushion the pressure at the bridge to "sweeten" the tone.

Illustrated below are the basic construction details for the device commonly known as The Egyptian Ankh, which works by producing a powerful particle beam and ambient field with multiple properties by the production of synchronously chained Sonoluminescence (S.L.). Here's how it works (reminder - you might want to substitute carbon nano-tubes for plain old carbon fibres; but nothing else needs to change - and please do remember that this is only science fiction): - (yeah, right!)

Sonoluminescence is a little-understood phenomenon which apparently serves no useful purpose but has enormously tantalizing potential. The standard demonstration of sonoluminescence involves a laboratory flask, with transducers attached, the flask being filled with liquid. High energy sound is pumped into the fluid and the result is what appears to the human eye to be a point source of light, which pulses in time with the sound frequency. This is due to cavitation. Bubbles form and collapse violently at the acoustic focal centre, emitting light. It has been argued that maybe some kind of fusion process is involved but tapping that energy seems to be a futile task. Apparently, if the entire planet were to be covered with such laboratory flask experimental equipment, and if it were possible to tap into the resultant energy output, the resulting power would maybe raise the temperature of a cup of coffee by just 1 degree celcius!




So another, entirely different, approach is necessary to test if S.L. is to be put to any practical use. My proposal is that a music string could be constructed with a multi-filament carbon fibre tow core, wound with aluminium wire. This is intended to contain water between the carbon fibres. All three of the materials involved (water, carbon and aluminium) are diamagnetic, i,e., they repel alternating magnetic fields. They also each exihibit mutual antipathy.




Pictured right, a short section of a single, dry carbon fibre (top right) and (below right) how it appears when immersed in water. The water cannot wet the surface of the fibre, so an envelope of air surrounds it, acting as a perfect mirror. If a bundle of such fibres, as proposed for the music string herein described, is assembled, and the bundle is wound with aluminium wire (as above), any water that is pumped into the capillary spaces will be forced to form into water-strings, suspended centrally in each capillary. 18,000 fibres will make a core of diameter only 1mm (internally, considering the core only).


~ and here is where we take a break to illustrate the idea of a water-string being supported magnetohydrodynamically within a carbon nanotube, instead of between carbon fibres.

Here illustrated (right) a short piece of carbon nano-tube with a water string supported at the centre of the tube's "bore" by mutual antipathy of materials.

~ but before that, here I return to the original idea: - ~ with carbon fibres...


To clarify this idea, here, on the right, is a picture to illustrate the principle. The flashing blue dots represent the water-strings suspended in the spaces between the fibres. Any water string thus structured will be capable of performing as an efficient fibre-optic and be virtually infinitely flexible.


To test the mirror effect of the repulsion of water by carbon, a simple experiment can be performed. A candle flame will blacken a coin with carbon (soot). Immersed in water, the coin appears to have a mirrored surface.


There will also be formed, effectively, three triangular-sectioned spaces enclosing each water-string. After the (previously boiled) water vapour condenses, these extremely fine capillaries will be subject to longitudinal atmospheric pressure gradients.




This graphic (right) illustrates the mutual repulsion of the carbon and water antipathy mechanism further and shows the relative proportions of carbon fibre and water.

18,000 fibres = 36,000 capillary spaces.


At any cut end of such a string (containing water-strings) will leak a short length of water but no further leakage can then occur. Surface tension of the water holds it together for most of the hard string's length but each end will balance in repulsion and no further water will exit each capillary. A convex end-meniscus forms.


To build a jig in which to tension the music string as suggested, some basic principles of music string dynamics will need to be observed. Strings don't like sharp edges; a rounded support is a much better design. This is because all music strings have some degree of stiffness inherent and cannot behave with infinite flexibility. On a guitar, for example, a rounded top to a bridge saddle renders a much sweeter, harmonically rich tone. The string can wrap around the curve as it vibrates and thus it follows that the speaking length will change with each oscillation.


To see this effect more clearly, here is a second illustration: - each pulse produced by these microscopic percussive events promotes longitudinal propagation of travelling compression waves throughout the string speaking length, thus adding to harmonic richness.


Every music string needs to be tensioned in order to produce a sound, so this special string will have to be gripped at each end with curved surfaced supports. A pair of carefully shaped grooved collets are ideal for the jig suggested.


Here's a sectional view of one end of the string, gripped by a pair of such collets: - These are drawings from 2001.




- and here (right) is another, external view showing the anchorage collets on a piece of the string. The internal milling of the capture grooves is the most precisely engineered part of the overall design.




The jig I have designed makes use of a four-spoked rotor to stimulate vibration electro-magnetically within the string and water. This component (the rotor) also needs to conform to the essential rounded-support design. As the rotor spins at the central point of the string length, it divides the speaking length in two, generating the second harmonic of whatever is the fundamental frequency of stimulated vibration. For a music string this creates a note one octave above the fundamental.



The jig uses the minimum number of parts possible to achieve the required schematic result. These do not include any external parts required for the supply of power via magnetoelectric energy for experimental stimulation of the chained S.L. The same collet design also serves for capacitive stators for the control of the rotor's rotational speed. The aim is to produce billions of sonoluminescence cavitation events, all perfectly synchronized within the water strings. If successful, it should be possible to actually derive light and heat from the resonant feedback induced within the string. The only fuel is water but the string will wear out through fatigue with prolonged use, so can be considered as fuel too.




Each of the water strings experiences electromagnetic pulses from the action of the rotor passing the stators and will divide up into higher numbered harmonics. Longitudinal peristaltic-like pressure-waves occur, moving along in each direction away from the central point and help to stimulate cavitation events at the compression nodes and anti-nodes' spacings. The carbon and aluminium components of the string are limited to relatively low-frequency vibration but the water strings have an enormous degree of flexibility. The harmonics integral within them can rise to virtually unlimited number values. All of the water strings (18,000 x 2) pulse in complete synchronization.






The water strings are all subject to the same electro-magnetic forces and behave in near perfect synchronization. The potential rotational speed for the rotor, being low-mass, is in the order of many thousands of r.p.m. and the flexibility of the water-strings is also virtually limitless. For example, if the node/antinode divisions in each water string are as short as 1m.m., 100 node/antinode divisions are plausible for each water string in a 100mm string length. 36,000 x 100 = 3,600,000 simultaneous compression S.L. events, all in parallel vector - but the wavelength of the water-strings' vibration could easily be much shorter.


The device is designed to be extremely sensitive to vibration (as all tensioned strings naturally are). When the string is tensioned and the jig is agitated by electromagnetic means, tension supporting piezo discs generate voltage which is passed to coils made of the same kind of string that is used for the speaking length. Externally supplied EMF can be used to "whip the system up to speed". Specific resonance may then be tuned within the closed system.

Some years ago, I drew this graphic to show the train of thought in the development of the feedback (howl-around) idea (right): -


On the right, is a cross-section of the main part of the assembly. The harmonic node and antinodes' number may be increased exponentially, as long as externally generated power is supplied. see video




External voltages may be applied to the system via the terminal crowns. if sonoluminescence occurs, then experimentation with resonance control may then be applied by adjustment of the parts. The voltages created by the string vibration via the piezo drivers are conducted by the terminal crowns to the coils. If chained S.L. were to occur, the nature of the energy output at the string ends would be, at least, novel.


Tension is applied to the string speaking length by means of two mutually opposed pistons in the central cylinder.


Terminal crowns

Coil former


Here are two exploded views of the whole assembly (2001 drawings).


Limited rotation of the coils allows for specific alignment of the stators relative to each other and the stators.



Atmospheric pressure is introduced to the central cylinder by means of a multiple-part piston pump. This allows for direct manual control of string tension.


This project was begun in 1984 and a provisional application was made for a patent. Below are the pencil drawings made at that time. Part No. 23 is the off-switch. It's made of bronze and when you've run out of string, you can conveniently use it as an axe head.

Assembly instructions...

Here are some "how to assemble the thing" drawings I did around 1984/85.

I have left these crude sketches mostly as originally drawn. Some of the parts may have different numbers in these sketches but they are all easily identifiable by their shapes.


drawing 1; beginning the assembly process, the piezo driver discs are inserted into the coil-formers...

drawing 2; the terminal crowns are pushed home into the coil formers, snap-connecting in the p.t.f.e moulding and resting in contact with the silvered piezo terminal surface...

drawing 3; coil number 1 winding begins, interleaved with p.t.f.e. tape;- when full, the bobbin is completed by passing the string under the piezo inside terminal surface...

drawing 4; coil number 2 begins in reverse order to coil number 1; in the modified version (1985), a spiral groove was considered to assist in the even coil winding process...

drawing 5; self explanatory, I think...

drawing 6; a degree of practised skill is required here to leave an unwound length of string available to pass through the assembled machine to act as the speaking length; the collets (7) are paired up to grip the string and inserted into the terminal crowns...

drawing 7; the string emerges after being passed through the coil former; the collets (7) now firmly anchor one end of what will become the speaking length...

drawing 8; both coil formers have their inner coil-contacting (7) parts inserted along with the spacer rings...

drawing 9; stators (7) inserted...

drawing 10; the jack is mounted upon the loose string, passed through the cylinder block and the coils are brought together, ready to snap-connect with the assemly...

drawing 11; nearly done...

drawing 12; two more collets are pushed in as the string is drawn hand-tight and in one (again skill-practiced) movement, snapped off by a sharp downward jerk...

drawing 13; the control loop is added, being attached via tightening down of the finger-nuts...

drawing 14; pressure adjustment mechanism is assembled...

drawing 15; ready for priming; this is done upside down so that the mercury can be drawn in or pumped out of the central chamber.

A brief history of how the author, Steven R. M. Acworth arrived at this design: -


(and other works of the author): -

Steven R. M. Acworth.